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Section Officer

Termination of Missions

Termination of Missions   A diplomatic mission can be terminated in various ways.  The most common way is by recall by the accredited State. Termination of missions may be withdrawn by mutual agreement or through an act of foreign policy, such as prelude to war.  A letter of recall is …

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Special Missions

Special Missions Special ad hoc missions are sent by the sending State to fulfill a specific purpose. Such missions may be accredited irrespective of whether there are permanent diplomatic and consular missions and relations. The Convention on Special Missions in 1969[1] was formulated to guarantee immunities to special missions. Interestingly, …

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Function of the Diplomatic mission

Function of the Diplomatic mission A foreign body set up by mutual arrangement of states to deal with foreign relation, to maintain constant, official contacts and to act on behalf of the state which founded it on all political and other questions arising in the international ship of states. According …

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Breaking Diplomatic Ties

Breaking Diplomatic Ties   Previously the rupture of diplomatic relations between countries was considered a serious measure. In most cases, this rupture would lead to war. In 1793, Great Britain broke off diplomatic ties with France as a result of the execution of Louis XVI and ordered the rench ambassador …

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Waiver of Immunity of a Diplomat

Waiver of Immunity of a Diplomat   The waiver of immunity, empowered by Article 32, is the “act by which the sending State renounces that immunity with regard to the person concerned”. Once waiver occurs, the local courts in the receiving State will have jurisdiction to prosecute and punish the …

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Persona Non Grata

Persona Non Grata The diplomatic officer must be acceptable to the receiving State if he is to have any official status at all. Article 9 of the Vienna Convention allows for the receiving State not to accept individuals before appointment and also to expel diplomats after their appointment as a …

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Privileges and Immunities of a Diplomat

Privileges and Immunities of a Diplomat Personal Inviolability Diplomats are accorded the highest degree of privileges and immunities for their special job. Five privileges established in the Vienna Convention are exemption from taxation,[1] custom duties and baggage inspection, exemption from social security obligation, from personal and public services,[2] and exemption …

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Diplomatic Bag and Diplomatic Couriers

Diplomatic Bag and Diplomatic Couriers The diplomatic bag is given more absolute protection under the Vienna Convention than was given under customary law.[1] Previously, the receiving State had a right to challenge a bag that was suspected to contain unauthorised items. If this occurred, the sending State could either return …

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Theories of Diplomatic Immunity

Theories of Diplomatic Immunity Since the 16th century there have been three major theories of diplomatic immunity. Each theory plays a prominent role during different periods in history. These theories are: (a) personal representation, (b) extra territoriality and (c) functional necessity. Not only will their historical context be reflected but …

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