Remittance and Its Impact on Changing Social Patterns of Foreign Employers | Socio/Anthropology Thesis
Remittance and Its Impact on Changing Social Patterns | Howw to Write a Thesis
CHAPTER – ONE
Migration is the movement of people across borders. If the borders are within a country, the migration is called internal or domestic migration, or simply migration. If the borders divide countries, it is international migration, with ‘immigration’ denoting people entering a country and ‘emigration’ denoting their exit. The concern of the present study is on international labour migration. Since remittance is intrinsically related to labour migration, this study also paves its attention to international migration as well as remittance. Ritzer (2007) in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology defines international migration as “International migration is generally defined as the change of a person’s usual place of residence from one country to another” (p. 3019).
There are mainly two factors: push and pull which makes people migrate to foreign destinations. The pull factors tempt people with money and good opportunities available in foreign destinations and with good salary. On the other hand, push factors compel people to migrate. These factors are unemployment, lack of services and facilities, lack of proper education, poverty, etc. which increases migration (Janawaali, 2004).
Basically, the majority of Nepali people migrate to foreign countries for earning money, some with the purpose of study and others for business, visit, diplomatic works, etc. In one or another way, the Nepali people are migrating to other countries in search of better earning.
The present research aims at exploring into the causes of foreign labour migration and its effect on changing social patterns like family type and size, household structure, customs and beliefs, family relationships and education. This study seeks to find the causes that compel people to go to foreign countries for work. In addition, the research mainly focuses on the use of remittance in household works because labour migration makes it possible to send money from foreign destinations. In other words the economic condition of the foreign labour migrants and change in it will also be the thrust of present study. It is because the study cannot alienate remittance from the issue of labour migration.
Apart from this, the study concerns with the issue of socio-economic changes made by remittance. The study has explored into the economic changes made by remittance in the study area. For that, the researcher examined the income and expenditure of the family. The study also focuses on the behavioural changes like use of clothes and food habits.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nepal is known as one of the least developed countries in the world. It is in the process of infrastructural development. Almost 80% population of Nepal is dependent on agriculture. Since agriculture is a seasonal phenomenon, most of the people are practicing subsistence agricultural system. The concern of the present study is on Sabaila VDC, Dhanusa District of Nepal where most of the people are dependent on agriculture. The data shows that 76% of the population in the study area is dependent of agriculture (National Association of VDCs, 2011).
In the recent days young people from Sabaila VDC are engaging themselves in jobs at foreign lands. The trend of going to abroad is slowly and gradually increasing. The data of 2010 (National Association of VDCs, 2011) reveals that about 9% of the population is engaged in job at foreign land. The trend of going to abroad is due to the seasonal work at Nepal which is dependent on the traditional subsistence agriculture system. The cause that dragged people to foreign lands is 10 years Maoist conflict which continued from 2052 to 2064. The VDC on the one hand is receiving good remittance from the foreign lands. On the other hand, it created a huge problem in the VDC since it is hard to find a young and working population. The remaining old people engage themselves in talking, playing cards and gambling. The jobs in foreign destinations are not easy for people to work. But it contributes much for the Nepalese economy and is known as remittance. The foreign jobs helped in maintaining the living standards of people in Nepal (National Association of VDCs, 2011).
Sabaila VDC, Dhanusa district is one of the places from where most of the people have left their places and working in foreign destinations. Thus, the researcher wanted to study about the factors affecting foreign migration and socio-economic changes made by remittance. Regarding the remittance and its effect on changing social patterns of migrant workers, the following research questions can be raised as problems:
iii) What are the socio-economic changes made by remittance?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The specific objectives of the study are:
1.4 Significance of the Study
The present research work brings a detailed description of factors leading to foreign labour migration. Even though the living condition of people of study area is poor, they are raising their status with the remittances and continuing in making their standards high. It is also helpful for the people who want to know about how the foreign remittances are being used in Nepal. Not only that, this research also helps for those who want to conduct study in realm of labor migration, remittance and socio-economic changes made by remittance.
CHAPTER – TWO
2.1 Theoretical Literature
Migration is broadly defined as a permanent, semi-permanent or temporary change of residence. Previously there was trend of group migration where a single herd is migrated to another location. As the time passed, the trend of migration has also changed. Nowadays, migration stands for individual or family migration.
Ravenstein (1985) was the first person to study migration systematically. Ravenstein’s article entitled, The Law of Migration deals with push and pull factors as the basis for his theory of migration. Push factors push the migrants from their place of origin and on the other hand, pull factors pull the migrants to the place of destination. He formulated seven laws of migration. According to him the volume of migration depends on distance. Longer the distance, lesser will be the volume of migration.
Since, migration is a complex phenomenon, it is difficult to classify exactly. It can be classified according to motive, distance and duration. Migration can be classified into two major types.
Both of them are temporary and permanent. Temporary migration is further divided into three types.
Janawaali (2004) conducted his study which focuses on seasonal labor migration. People go to outside the village in order to send back remittance to their families. In the case of temporary migration people leave the residence for certain period of time. Such mobility is defined as circular or seasonal migration which can be internal and external.
Todaro (1976) states that migration is stimulated primarily by rational economic consideration of relative benefits which are mostly financial: decision to migrate is influenced by the difference of expected income between two places.
History of Migration in Nepal
Migration has a long history in Nepal in the past, Nepal had been a country of destination of immigrants from both north and south. International labour migration began especially since the first World War around 200 years ago. People of Nepal have been migrating since the treaty of Sugauli (1816) at the first quarter of the 19th century. Nepalese migrants were also forced recruitment to the British army in colonial India and abroad (K.C. et al, 1995).
For around 200 years, men (and to a lesser extent women) from Nepal have been to foreign countries for work. For around 200 years, Nepali labour migrants have been bringing or sending back some of their earning as remittances to their families. Foreign labour migration have a long history in Nepal. It started even before the first Nepali men travelled to Lahore army of the Sikh ruler, Ranjit Singh (earning themselves and all those subsequent employed in foreign armies abroad- dubbed as ‘LAHURE’) and even before the recruitment of the first Nepalese to the British ‘GURKHAS’ in 1815/16. But surprisingly little interest had been paid to foreign migration or to the ever increasing importance of the remittances and pensions that flowed back into Nepal as a result of employment abroad, by policy makers or by researchers- at least until the last few years.
2.1 Empirical Researches on Migration
The rapidly increasing international labor migration has been supported by regional inter links, open boarder policy with India and diligent workers (Grahera and Gurung, 2003).
The wage labour and seasonal labor migration are major supplementary income sources for rural households (Pokhrel, 2008).
Labor migration to India has been advantageous because of non official restriction and there is no need for expensive air travel, no passport and visa required (Seddon et.al, 2001).
Labor migration to India has been sustained due to wage differential and differences in employment rates and prices, shorter distance, close affinity in religion, culture, language, kin-rules have shaped labor migration to India, similarly in physical habitat, role of communication and information network all seem relevant for migration to India (Subedi, 1991).
Mishra (2007) concluded that remittances have emerged as an important source of income for households, in particular in developing countries. The flow of remittances is least influenced by economic downturn and remain a stable source of income. Analytical studies have shown that remittances contribute to poverty reduction in home countries. The understanding of the micro as well as macro impact of remittances on home countries is only now emerging. This is relatively a new area of research however, it is fast gaining prominence with the growing magnitude of remittances.
Dhungel (2008), in his article “Remittance: A Significant Income Source” in the Kathmandu Post, Wednesday, March 26, 2008, p-4, concluded that remittance has played a vital role in the development of global economy. Its significance in reducing poverty has not only helped in shaping the global economy and achieving expected economy growth rate. The livelihood of the poor people of these countries depends partially on the inflow of remittance and has manifold effects on the overall economy and almost all South Asian countries. Remittance provides a lifeline to the poor. Remittance is an essential source of foreign exchange earnings. It acts as a stabilizing force for these economies on the turbulent times.
There is possibility to acquire land for migrants, as they earn more wages than local agrarian production, many of them purchase land and invest in building a new house for its prestige value (Massey, et al., 1993)
According to Kshetry (1987), the reasons for migration in Nepal are economic disparity created between poor and rich. By rapidly changing land structure- population density, the low productivity of soils, lack of employment opportunities in the hills, and the perceived economic and social advantages in the low land by the migrants.
Labor migration (from Far West Nepal) is the result of agriculture insufficiency brought about by land scarcity, due to inadequate land with no available techniques to improve local agriculture, short term labor migration has been facilitated due to the easy availability of jobs in India, as building of road brought much development to the Indian side, giving many opportunities for short term labor migration (Dahal et. al, 1977).
High risk of food insecurity is the common phenomenon for the majority of the rural people. Consequently, they move somewhere else looking for a job, which implies seasonal long distance migration to India (Martin, 2001).
Bhandari (2003) undertook a study on international labour migration as livelihood strategy. The author mentioned that international labour migration is accepted as a livelihood strategy and it was highly institutionalized in his study area. Among the labour Migrants most of them were employed in unskilled jobs, small numbers in semiskilled jobs and very few were in skilled jobs. Bhandari started that despite being the main source of earning a livelihood, a large proportion of the households in the study was unable to fulfill the food requirement of their family from their own production. Bhandari found that several chances in the social setting of the VDC were notable. Level of income had a significant role on economy needed for nation. He concluded that structure of houses are almost changed among the emigrant’s households and changes were also found in landholding pattern. Standard of living and quality of food were also raised. The numbers of domestic animals were reduced significantly but these were moves towards commercialization of stock saving. Unemployment, lack of agricultural land and low agriculrura1 production were important factors for emigration associated with origin. Likewise, higher wage rates, demonstration effects and the presence of friends/relatives and the need of no special skill or higher education were other important factors associated with destination.
Dangi (2008), in his article “Rolpa Gets Rs 5 Million in Remittance Daily” concluded that money transfer agents in Rolpa said that migrant workers from the district have been sending back remittance amounting to approximately Rs 5 million daily. Prabesh Acharya, Manager of Fast Express Money Transfer, Mana Prasad B.K., Manager Digo Money Transfer, Jaljala Money Transfer and Raut Communication reported that their daily transactions were 1 million, 2 million, 100,000 and 100,000 respectively. Flow of remittances had increased in recent days. “Even migrant workers in India have started sending back money through money transfer agents”, they added.
Limbu (2008), in his article “Contribution of Foreign Employment to Increase each Nepalese Monthly Income” argues that foreign employment has the various effects in Nepalese society such as family change, social change, positive effect on economy, poverty alleviation, city oriented migration, women right on property etc.
Pant (2005), in his report entitled “Remittances and Development in Developing Countries” has stated that remittances are important financial resources to the receiving countries at the micro and macro level. They increase both the income of the recipient and the foreign exchange reserve of the recipient’s countries. Mostly remittances are used for basic subsistence needs and for daily needs such as food, clothing and housing. These three components make up a significant portion of the income of the recipients household. At an individual level, remittance increases the income and reduces the poverty. Generally, in the developing countries only a small percentage of remittance is used in saving and remaining is used in productive sector such as in income generating activities as buying lands or tools, starting a new business and other activities. However, the money spent on better education of the children and health is believed to have a favorable effect on growth, which tends to help in output production. At the macroeconomic level, remittance provides significant sources of foreign currency and contribution to the balance of payment. Remittance also contributes to the expansion of communication services courier companies as well as money exchange services, which contribute to the expansion of economic activities and increase the employment opportunities.
The above studies only talk about the contribution of remittance to Nepalese economy but it lacks details about how the foreign labour migrants suffered, how their future is unsecure and how the families of the foreign labour migrants felt. There remains a huge gap between remittance and change of Nepali society. So, there is strong need to address the social problems of and this study will be addressing those problems of foreign labour migrants as well as fulfill the research gap.
3.1 Selection of the Study Area
I found that mostly people go to foreign destination from the eastern part of Nepal. Sabaila VDC, Dhanusa district which lies in central region of Nepal was selected for the study purpose. This area was highly affected area during the Maoist people’s war or during the eleven years conflict. This area is considered as backward in development and most of the people in this area lack education and lack of productive land. They cannot get enough food to feed their children and give education to them. They have not any source of income than remittance. Most of the people are not well-educated and they have no any other option of job opportunities. But nowadays, going to foreign country in search of job and getting remittance has become the general trend of the village. The effect of remittance has been improving their lifestyle too.
This is the main reason which inspired the researcher to choose this area. There are many youths who have been working in foreign countries. In addition, it would be easy to retrieve the information since the researcher is living nearby the VDC. It will be easy for the researcher to study the infrastructural changes of the VDC. I have visited this area many times before I started writing my proposal. So, it is easy for the researcher to make oneself familiar with the people of the study area. Due to lack of time, economy and some other constraints, the researcher cannot conduct the study in large area and Sabaila VDC as a small region, is easy for the researcher. Considering the above-mentioned reasons, the researcher chose Sabaila VDC as a study area.
3.2 Source of Data
This research is based on household survey conducted in Sabaila VDC of Dhanusa district, which was complemented with Interview, observation and focused-group discussion. In this research, Information was collected from both primary and secondary sources.
3.2.1 Primary Sources of Data
The major thrust of the study lies in the primary sources of data. The primary sources of data for this study were 90 migrant labours of Sabaila VDC. Thus, the entire study deals with the data retrieved from primary sources in revealing the cause and effect, socio-economic and religious changes made by remittances.
3.2.2 Secondary Sources of Data
Besides primary data, some required data related to the study were collected from secondary sources. Secondary sources of data were the books, journals, articles, VDC profiles and census reports, which are required to create a baseline of the study and to describe location, climate, physical and other related aspects of the study area.
3.3 Sampling Procedure
Household survey was used as a tool for obtaining information of total households. At first, the number of total households was retrieved from the VDC office, it is 1725 households (National Association of VDCs, 2011). The researcher took 9 wards as a whole and with the help of stratified random sampling method choose 90 households, 10 from each wards.
3.4 Primary Data Collection Techniques
Qualitative as well as quantitative data was collected from primary and secondary sources. Particularly, the primary data was collected using following data generation techniques.
3.4.1 Household Survey
Sabaila VDC consists of 1725 households. It is quite difficult for me to do whole survey by myself. There are only 9 wards in the selected VDC. The researcher choose 90 households 10 from each with the help of stratified random sampling method. Going house to house I asked the household heads to answer my questions. If household head is abroad, I spoke to the wife of the household head and other senior member of the households. The researcher took nearby household if the selected household members are unavailable.
For the household survey, a standardized format (family composition) was prepared containing questions to be asked. The household survey contained the demographic information like population composition in terms of age, sex, marital status, occupation, factors of international labour migration and socio-economic and religious changes in the VDC.
The researcher held interview with the respondents who have experience of going in foreign employment. The researcher used questionnaire and notebook while taking interview.
Non-participatory general observation was done by the researcher to obtain qualitative information. During the study physical condition of the house, clothing, food habit and infrastructural development of house including the use of technology and electronic devices were observed. Necessary information was taken by creating polite language with women and other family members.
3.4 Reliability and Validity of the Data
The gathered primary data was concerned with the factors of migration to abroad countries in search of jobs and the utilization of remittance received by the family members. This study represents twenty percent of the total population of study area. The researcher followed the method of visiting door to door to collect the required data. The data was collected from household heads and key informants. They were asked questions and informal interview was also taken.
3.5 Method and Techniques of Data Analysis
Both primary and secondary data were used for this study. Basically, the primary data was used as a baseline for accomplishing the intended goal. The collected primary data was coded, analyzed and interpreted relating to the remittance and its utilization. Then the researcher presented data descriptively using simple statistical tools such as number and percentage. To make the presentation more comprehensible, the researcher presented the data in appropriate graphs and charts.
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY AREA
4.1 Introduction of the Study Area
Topology, environment, and natural situation of the study area has been described in this chapter. General introduction of the district is also given in which the study area locates. Nepal is rich in its cultures, lifestyle, tradition, and so on varying from Himal, hill to terai. The study area lies in Dhanusa district, Sabaila VDC, 14 km. north from Janakpur.
4.2 Introduction of the Dhanusa district
Dhanusa lies in the eastern part of Nepal. It exists 81.55` to 82.48` east longitudes and 27.14` to 27.18` north latitude. It covers about 2,218 sq. km area. District headquarter Janakpur is at 209 miter height. There is only one municipality, two proposed municipalities and 101 VDCs in Dhanusa. There are five constitution numbers in Dhanusa. Sabaila is in the constituency no.5. (CBS, 2011)
4.2.1 Introduction of Sabaila VDC
Sabaila VDC lies in the eastern part of the Dhanusa district. The VDC spread in 77.41 sq. km. It is about 14 km. far from the district headquarter. There are two-government schools, three-boarding schools, a health post, a post office, a Angela rivulet, and a domestic airport. It is closer to tiger top a tourist destination Janakpurdham. The total population of the VDC is 16,488 with in 2,748 households (VDC Record, 2067/68).
4.3 Socio-Economic Background of the Respondents
There are different ethnic groups in Sabaila VDC. Sabaila VDC comprises of Dalit, Muslim, Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar, Danuwar, Teli, Sudi, Yadav, etc. The population composition of the VDC is given in the table 1.
4.3.1 Caste/ Ethnic Composition of the Respondents
Different ethnic groups live in Sabaila VDC of Dhanusa district. Among them, Newar, Yadavi, Teli, Sudi, Muslim are the main castes of this VDC. The following table shows the caste/ ethnic distribution of the respondents.
Distribution of the Respondents by Caste/Ethnic Group
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The table no. 1 shows that majority of the respondents were from Teli caste/ethnic group which is 23%. It is found that most of the Teli caste/ethnic people are involved in foreign employment. The second majority of the respondents are from Sudi caste/ethnic group i.e. 21%, followed by Raut 15%, Yadav 15%, Newar 10%, Muslim 4% and others 12%. The others caste/ethnic people are Brahmin and Cheetris.
The study reveals that most of the Teli and Sudi caste/ethnic group involve in foreign employment. It is also found that due to the poverty, they are obliged to go for foreign employment.
4.3.2 Age and Sex Composition of Sampled Respondents
The age and sex are important demographic variables. Those respondents who returned from the foreign employment are sampled for the study. The age and sex composition of the sampled respondents is presented in the table 2.
Age and Sex Composition of the Respondents
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
Table No.3 shows the age and sex composition of the sampled respondents. The majority of the respondents who go for foreign employment are between 26-35 age group which is 44.44%. The second majority of the respondents are between the age group of 36-45 which is 27.78%, followed by age group 18-25 which is 20% and the least 7.78% respondents are above 45 years. It is evident that respondents who are energetic and physically well are going for foreign employment. The age group 26-35 is more productive than that of above 45 years.
The study reveals that most of the youths who are in their productive age, go for foreign employment. The problem of conflict, low economic condition and obligation to pay debt are some of the problems which make them go for foreign employment.
4.3.3 Educational Status of the Respondents
Education is the light of human life and first step of carrier development. Education can support individual for the development of family, society, and country. With the attainment of education, a person can develop his essential knowledge, skill, and attitude for his life. As a result, skilled and qualified labor is produced. Education always plays crucial role in all round development of nation. The educational status of the respondents is presented in the table No.3.
Educational Status of the Respondents
Source: Field Survey 2012
The table no 4 shows the educational status of the sampled respondents. It is found that all of the respondents who go for foreign employment are literate. They have attained some education. It shows that majority of the respondents have completed secondary level education which is 55.56. The second majority of the respondents have completed primary education, which is 30%. There are least respondents who completed their higher secondary and bachelor level of education, which is 12.22% and 2.22% respectively.
The literacy rate of female is higher in secondary and higher secondary level than that of males. The educational attainment of the girls is poor in bachelor level because there are none of the female respondents who completed their bachelor’s degree.
4.3.4 Occupational Status of the Respondents
Occupation is the most important factor to service. All people have their own occupation. Occupation creates some social relation and gives the personal identity in society. The occupation status of the sampled respondents in Sabaila VDC is given in the Table No.4
Occupation of the Respondents
Source: Field Survey, 2012
Note: Students are not included in occupation.
Table No.5 shows the occupational status of the respondents. There are 41male and 8 females involved in agriculture, it is 90 respondents in total and 54.44% in aggregate. There are 27 male and 3 female involved in wage labour, it is 33.3% in total. There are only 2 males and 1 female involved in service, 1 male in business and 4 males and 3 females in other jobs which is 3.33%, 1.11% and 7.78% respectively for service, business and others. The jobs that account under others category are those who involve in small business like making candles, agarbatti, etc.
Due to the low income by these professions, the growing interest in foreign employment among the youngsters drives them to the foreign land. Since, comparatively male had to fulfill the economic responsibility of the family more than female, males engaged in economic oriented activities.
4.3.5 Income Pattern of the Respondents
Income amount affects the expenditure pattern of people. Therefore, it is necessary to get information of income. Table No. 6 shows the monthly income pattern of the respondents.
Table No. 5
Monthly Income of Respondents
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The above table clearly shows that most of the respondents’ family i.e. 74.44% belongs to the monthly income level below 5 thousands. It is very hard for them to manage with 5 thousands for the whole month. In the same way, the second majority of the population falls in the category of monthly income 5-10 thousands which is 22.22% and the least i.e. 3.33% above 10 thousands.
The study reveals that most of the respondents’ monthly income is very low even to fulfill their basic needs. Since their main occupation i.e. agriculture is based on subsistence, they do not get any cash by it. Thus, most of the respondents occupation is agriculture whose income is below 5 thousands.
4.3.6 Family Background
The study reveals the fact that most of the respondents are obliged to go foreign countries due to their lower economic status. The following table shows the economic background of respondents before going to foreign countries:
Table No. 6
Economic Condition of the Respondents’ Family
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The study explores the fact that majority of the respondents are from ‘lower economic condition family. The study shows that 56.67 percent of the respondents belong to lower economic condition followed by lower-middle which is 26.67%, middle 14.44% and only 2.22% respondents belong to higher economic class. These respondents go for foreign employment in order to support their family so that their economic condition will be improved.
From the interview it is revealed that most of the respondentS go for foreign employment to earn money. Some of them also revealed that they go to earn money and tourism.
4.3.7 Causes of Going for Foreign Employment
There are less job opportunities in Nepal. Thousands of Nepali people go to the foreign destinations for employment. The causes of foreign employment may be different in each family. Table No.7 shows the causes of foreign employment in the study area.
Causes of foreign employment
Source: Field Survey, 2012
There are 57.78% respondents go for foreign employment because of their unemployed state in Nepal. There are 13.33% respondents who go in foreign employment to earn high amount of money. There are 24.44% respondents whose cause of foreign employment is to repay of house loan. There are 4.44% respondents whose cause of foreign employment is others. The other causes are due to the conflict resulted by the Maoist insurgency or their friends or family members are in foreign countries.
It is found that most of the respondents go for foreign employment due to the lack of jobs in Nepal, to repay the loan taken from banks, merchants and relatives. Krishna Khatri, one of the respondents goes in foreign employment because of his unemployed state in Nepal. He says, “In Nepal we cannot get jobs. The jobs are available for those who have reach to politicians and businessmen and we who have no one in power and position, could not get job. So, I decided to go for foreign employment.” The problem of unemployment drags Nepali youths to the foreign destinations which is also evident from the 57.78% respondents who claimed that there are no jobs available in Nepal.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGES FROM REMITTANCE
This study has focused on the expenditure pattern on health and education in terms of remittance earning and non-earning households. It has discussed the social changes from remittance and foreign employment. In addition, it is analyzed the motivating factors to invest on health and education.
5.1 Background Information of the Respondents
5.1.1 Foreign Destination and Cost
The study found that respondents’ foreign destinations for employment are Dubai, Qatar, Malaysia, Oman, Afghanistan and others. These respondents are found paying less than 50 thousands to above 1 lakh for goring to foreign employment. The following table no. 8 shows the details about foreign destinations and cost of going to foreign destination.
Destinations for foreign employment
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table shows that most of the respondents’ foreign destination is Malaysia which is 43.44%, followed by 30.00% Qatar, 18.89% Dubai and only 3.33% Oman, 1.11% Afghanistan and 3.33% other. The data reveals that most of the respondents’ destination is Malaysia because going to Malaysia is easier than that of other countries. The respondents going to other countries are in Kirgistan and Saudi Arabia. One of the foreign labour migrant Ram Narayan Yadav pays much money in comparison to others as he says, “I paid 1 lakh and 20 thousand for going Qatar. But after I reach there, I came to know that other friends paid 80 thousands for the same job. I was distorted to know that manpower agency took 40 thousands more from me.” It also reveals that there is no fixed rate for employers who want to go in foreign employment. Those who can speak and bargain with manpower agency members, can go in cheap price but those who cannot bargain are cheated too.
In addition foreign employers are also go wherever the manpower agency wants them to go. One of the respondents called Ramesh Pandit says, “First I wanted to go Dubai and asked manpower agent. But later on, I came to know that my visa is ready for Qatar and I paid 70 thousands for that. At first they told me it costs around 50 thousands for going to Dubai. I do not understand how the rate differs in going to one country and another in the same job”. Ramesh Pandit reveals that manpower agency does whatever it likes and foreign employers are obliged to obey their decision.
5.1.2 Medium of Going to Foreign Employment
The study reveals that cent percent of the respondents’ go in foreign employment by agents. The agents refer to the manpower company agents.
5.1.3 Skills of the Respondents
The study found that most of the respondents who go for foreign employment are without any skills. The study explores the fact that only 20% of the respondents have skills and rest of the 80% i.e. 72 respondents have no skills at all. The following table shows the job skilled and unskilled both respondents job description. The skilled respondents are accountants, electricians and Tailor and the rest are counted on unskilled labour.
Table No. 9
Skill and Job Description of the Respondents
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table shows the job description of the respondents. The data reveals that majority of the respondents are involved in non-skilled labour. It is evident that 26.67 percent of the respondents are involved in general labour, followed by helper 23.33%. In the same way in non-skilled sector 10% respondents worked as Cleaner and 7.78% store keeper. The skilled respondents are found very few. The data reveals that 12.22% of the respondents worked as a tailor, 4.44% as an electrician and 3.33% as an Accountant.
The educated respondents are found working as an Accountant whereas those who took technical education are found to be working as an Electrician and those who took tailoring training worked as a tailor. Sunil Shah one of the foreign employers says, “I used to work as an electrician but the income was very low in here. I never saved any money here. So, I decided to go for foreign employment because other friends have also told me about good income in foreign employment. I earned there good money and I’m happy now. If I get same work in Dubai or Qatar, I’ll certainly go there.” It also reveals that how the Nepali youths are tempted to go in foreign employment knowing that the income is good for skilled labors. The skilled labour do not face any kind of problem with their work neither they felt uneasy. The unskilled labours i.e. 80% of the respondents found working for long hours. It is very hard for them to work.
5.1.4 Duration of Stay in Foreign Employment
Duration of stay also helps in exploring the interest of foreign employers to go in foreign employment for the next time. The duration of stay is measured in three category i.e. less than 1 year stay, 1-2 year stay and above 2 years stay. The following table shows the details of the respondents about their stay in foreign employment:
Table No. 10
Duration of Stay in Foreign Employment
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The above table indicates the fact that most of the respondents i.e. 48.89% stay in foreign employment for 1-2 years. The general visa time of the respondents is 2 years for most of the countries like Malaysia, Saudi Arab, Dubai and Oman. If the company needs the work for additional time than 2 years, the employers need to add their time. In that sense, the 2 years stay can be taken as general stay of the respondents. Sahiba Mohmad, one of the respondents who stayed for four years in foreign destination says, “When I reached Dubai and started working as a storekeeper, my performance tempted my boss. I used to work here too as a salesman, so the duration of stay increased from 2 years to 4. I stayed there for altogether 4 years and earned nearly 22 lakhs. Now again, the boss is calling for me but I’m planning something different.” In the same way 46.67% of the respondents renewed their time of stay which is suggested by their above 2 years stay in foreign employment. It is because the respondents want to make more money since their aim to uplift their economic condition. Despite these, there are 4.44% respondents who returned Nepal in less than 1 year. The interview from the respondents who returned earlier than the normal time said that they do not get the said work, neither the salary as agreed. One of the respondents, Saroj Danuwar reveals his pain as, “I hardly stayed for 9 months. It became hard for me to work for 12 hours a day carrying loads from one truck to another. I could not tolerate it. So, I decided to earn as much as I paid while going there and then returned after 9 months stay. Earlier, the manpower agent said that it is indoor work but I was told to do whatever the boss tells in there.” It shows that Nepali youths like Saroj Danuwar are compelled to return in less than 1 year time because they are not given the work as agreed while going.
5.1.5 Method of Sending Remittance
The respondents use different methods for sending money to Nepal. These methods are by bank, hundi, relatives and friends, ownself and all users. The following table shows the details about the method of sending money.
Table No. 11
Methods used by Respondents to Send Remittance
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The above table shows that majority of the respondents used Bank as a method to send remittance which is 66.67%. Most of the respondents found Bank as an easy way to send remittance. It is also known from the interview that most of the respondents think that sending money through Bank is safe than with friends, relatives, with ownself and all users. They also mentioned that there is no risk in sending money through bank. Ramesh Shah, one of the respondents says, “I always send money though Bank because I think its safe. There is risk in sending cash money with friends, relatives and others. So, I prefer to send through bank.” Likewise, another respondents Paras Shah says, “I do not believe in friends so I send money through bank and its the safest of all.” It reveals that majority of the respondents send money through bank because they think it is safe to send money through bank and other mediums, according them, are unsafe. of the In the same way there are 12.22% respondents who send remittance with whoever they find returning to Nepal, followed by 10% relatives and friends, 7.78% through Hundi and only 3.33% with ownself while returning to Nepal.
5.1.6 Use of Remittance
The study reveals that selected respondents spent remittance in different sectors. These sectors are mainly on household expenses (i.e. loan repayment, house improvement, social spending, land purchase), bank deposit, lending and investment. The following table shows details of the use of remittance in different sectors:
Table No. 12
Use of Remittance
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The above table shows that majority of the respondents use remittance on household expenses. The data reveals that 36.67% of the respondents spend remittance on loan repayment, followed by 23.33% on house improvement, 12.22% on social spending on rituals like marriage, 8.89% spend on land purchase. One of the respondents, Kamal Sarki says, “I spent money in loan repayment. My family loan was completed in one year. Then after I planned to make Pakki house. So, I used remittance in building house after my arrival in Nepal. Still I owe some money but has not decided yet what to do with it. Maybe I’ll again go for foreign employment.” The aggregate of 81.11% respondents spend remittance on such household expenses. In the same way, 8.89% of the respondents deposit in bank, followed by 7.77% lending on interest and 4.44% invested on other sectors. The other sectors are business, education, health and income generating activities.
5.2 Social Changes from Remittance
When economic aspects change, effect is seen on family/social relation, social role, and social status. Among various causes of change in social relation, economic cause is one. Due to increase of family income, there is change in access of goods consumption, trend of expenditure, behavior between family members, social members that establishes new social relation and brings changes in some old social relations. The social changes from the remittance is described from the interview of the respondents which is given in table no.8.
Table No. 13
Social Changes from remittance
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
Table No. 8 shows that after getting remittance 33 males and 2 females replied that their social status has changed which is 38.89% in aggregate. Likewise, 18 male and 3 female respondents feel that their social roles have changed which is 23.33% in total. In the same way 18 males and 7 females feel that their social relation is improved which is 27.78% in total. Despite these changes, 10% of the respondents feel that there occurred no change in their social roles, relations and status. One of the respondents, Sunil Sah reveals that his status is increased after going to foreign employment. He says, “Now in any social ceremonies/ rituals I am called to participate. Some villagers also call me when there is misunderstanding between and among them. They want me to judge their deeds and give my suggestions.” These respondents are those who returned earlier from the foreign employment and those who worked for 2 years but get low salary from their work. Likewise, there are also some respondents who felt no change at all in their social status and role. Samir Mohmad says, “Nothing changed in my status, role and relation because I could not earn much money. All the money is spent in loan repayment and other household works.” It reveals that since some of the respondents could not get much remittance, their social status and role remained the same.
There are various dimensions of social stratification in Sabaila VDC, in which economic dimension is one. The traditional nature of the Nepalese society gives high value to wealth. As the youths of the Sabaila VDC began to give value to work, the measuring status has changed. Horizontal and vertical stratification of human status in terms of wealth is getting weaker. The continuous absence of the productive labor and shortage of labour has affected on high use and demand of labour. It has also contributed to give the importance or status of labour or person. The foreign employment has made difficult to get wage labor on the right time and right work. As a result, the wage of labor is increasing every day. After getting remittance by the poor families, they leave their traditional wage occupation. There is change in taking loans by poor families from higher rich families because poor families are also able to be self-reliant. Labour migration is breaking down in any culture because of reciprocity that entire caste and ethnic groups seem to losing their egalitarian characteristic and are difference in class line.
After the change of social status of the respondents’ families, their role is also changed because social roles are directed by social status. Foreign employment has also affected on gender relationship and women’s empowerment in society. When a husband or a head of the family migrates, it automatically increases workload to women because she has to complete all the works done by her husband before migration. The women are empowered in decision making regarding marriage, giving on interest and others.
After getting remittance, some respondents both male and female take skill development training. In this process, their relations are spreading with other community. Some males are taking cooking, waiter, driving, electrician, plumbing trainings and some females are taking tailoring, panting, nursing, beautician training. It is found that after taking training they are involved in different occupations in different places. The respondents who learned driving are involved in transportation sector. After becoming driver, their relation has established as a driver and a passenger. Likewise, those take different trainings, are involved in different occupations and their relation linked and spread with their work in different places. The females who took trainings either initiated their own micro economic initiatives or worked in others business. This has widened their relationship in the communities. Their relationships outside their homes have established. After getting remittance, the households invested in education. Their level of awareness increased. As a result, they began to go to health centers for medical treatment instead of going to visit Dhami Jhakri. The social relationship has also changed. Not only that there are also negative effects. The women are especially either victimized by father-in-law, mother-in-law. Not only that some eloped with other men.
5.2.1 Change in Family Type
The study found the changes in family type after they start getting remittances. The remittance improves the economic status of the respondents. Thus, the family type also changes with the improvement in their economic condition. The following table shows the change in family type before and after involving in foreign employment.
Table No. 14
Change in Family type
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The above table indicates that before going to foreign employment there were 81.11% joint families but after the respondents’ return to Nepal, the number of joint families are decreased. On the other hand, the rate of nuclear family is increasing due to the effect of remittance. Some of the respondents buy lands, involve in trade and commerce. The village is turns out to be a city.
Remittance helps to change social relation also. After the foreign employment, joint family was broken and nuclear family was born as a norm. When persons leave the joint family status, their role, responsibility and relation to the family and society also changes. It is found that from the change of family`s source of income and amount of income, the relation with the society is changed. After getting remittance or foreign employments, some respondents started to leave joint family and formed nuclear family. Foreign employment helps to increase independence upon their family especially for young generation. From the foreign employment, youths are able to earn money and they do not need family financial support. Foreign employment has created detached relationship of young generation with family, relatives, fellows, peers, and villagers because when they are in foreign country, they are busy at work and have no more leisure time. One of the respondents, Radha Sah reveals, “Since our income increased by remittance, my family decided to live separately”. It reveals that due to the remittance the joint families are broken and the new nuclear family is born.
5.2.2 Change in Type of House
The study also reveals that there is difference between before going for foreign employment and after getting remittance from foreign employment, there is difference in type of house. Since respondents invested money on house improvement, we can see change in their house type. The following table clearly shows the change in type of house:
Table No. 15
Change in Type of House
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table shows that before going to foreign employment there were 74.44% Kachhi houses. In the same way, there were 20% Ardha-pakki houses and only 5.56% houses were pakki. After getting remittance from foreign employment, the number of pakkir houses and ardha-pakki houses have been increased which is suggested by Pakki houses 15.56% and the Ardkha-pakki houses 37.78%. The increase of Ardkha pakki houses by 17.78% and 10% of Pakki houses have been noticed. One of the respondents Mahesh Kunwar reveals, “The money is used in making pakki house. All the villagers started making pakki house. So, I decided to spend money in building pakki house”. The increasement of Ardha-pakki and Pakki houses has reverse relationship with Kachhi houses since Kachhi houses have been decreased by 27.77%.
The study reveals that when the economic condition of respondents becomes stronger since their earning is good, they prioritized to build up their house first. The miserable existence of Nepalese people have higher aim and destiny which is compared to building of Pakki houses, buying Motorbike, car etc.
5.2.3 Intimacy with Family Members
The study found that all of the 90 members or cent percent realized a bit little more intimate with the other family members. They also expressed that the attitude of looking and behaving to them is quite changed. Some of the respondents also claimed that people judge one with his earning of money. One of the respondent of Sabail VDC-4 claims that “Nowadays people judge a man with his earning, if I earn more, they respect me otherwise, they call me Jauwa and start backbiting”. One of the respondents Subodh Shrestha reveals, “After I went in foreign employment my family members as well as other villagers come in my house and talk. I fell more intimate with them than earlier”. The trend of judging a man with his income shows that people love money than relationship. It is the compulsion of such families that are living under poverty. They stress their family members for earning money and uplifting their social status.
5.2.4 Changes in Family Health
Health and is one of the essential and basic needs of human beings. There is one proverb in Nepali which “Jyan chha ta sabai chha jyan chaina ta kehi pani chhaina” which is also called “Health is wealth” in English. But the problem is that most of the Nepalese people do not go for regular health check-up. The present study notices the change in people’s attitude toward health-check up after they get remittance from foreign employment. The following table shows the health-checkup status of the respondents on monthly, yearly, sometimes basis.
Change in Family Health
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
Table No. 16 shows the changes on family health after getting the remittance. There are 46.67% respondents who check-up their health on yearly basis which is followed by sometimes which is 42.22%. It is also noted that 11.11% of the respondents check their health status half-yearly.
The income of household’s affects on family health and education. In most of poor households, access to health is increased with financial support of the remittance. One of the respondents, Kamal Yadav says, “After going to foreign employment, my family received more remittance and go in private hospitals if they feel ill. They do not like to go in government hospital since it takes more time to stay in a row for meeting doctor.” Those people, whose economic condition was not good and obligated to stay with illness, they are able to treat their disease and illness now. Those households, whose economic condition was already good; who got little amount of remittance, their family health did not change in investment.
5.2.5 Place of Taking Heath Service
There are several factors of getting ill in our life. When person needs health service, he/she goes to take health centre or clinics, hospitals. The place of seeking health service may differ from family to family. The place of taking health service of remittance earning and non-earning households is present on Table No.12.
Places of taking health service
Source: Field Survey, 2012
Table No.17 shows the places of taking heath services of the respondents. The past status of the respondents that that majority of the respondents used to go Government hospital if they are ill which is 42.22%, followed by Divner Dhami 27.78%, health post 17.78% and the least on private clinic or hospitals. which is 12.22%.
The present status of the respondents is quite different since their economic condition is improved by remittance. The data reveals that 50% of the respondents go in government hospital for treatment which is followed by private clinic and hospital which is 26.67% and health post 13.33% and only 10% with Dhami. The rate of increase in going go government hospital and private clinic is due to the improvement in their economic condition. On the other hand, the decrease in going to Dhami is due to the knowledge about diseases and improved economic status. One of the respondents, Gopal Khatri reveals, “After returning from foreign employment, I left believing in Dhami, now my family go in government hospital for treatment. Still my wife believes in Dhami but I convinced her.”
It is found that comparatively those families whose economic condition and income is low, they go to the health post, or governmental hospital and having high economic condition or high-income families go to private clinic/hospital to take health services. Some respondents complained the services of the government hospitals and mentioned that they were forced to go to private clinics or hospitals. In general, remittance earning and non-earning, go to private clinics of their community. Such clinics are opened from early morning to late night and they are in the walking distance.
5.2.6 Place of Taking Education
Education is an inescapable, integrated, and essential part of the development process itself. Education makes the human being able to realize the development activities and activity can participate in it. Hence, education leads a key role in determining overall progress of the society. There are various types of places to take education in the country. The places of getting educating the children of the respondents is given in Table No. 18.
Educational Status of the Respondents’ Family
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table shows that before going to foreign employment most of the respondents sent their children to the government school which is 46.67%, followed by community school i.e. 40%. There were only 13.33% of the respondents who sent their children to private boarding schools.
But after the respondents economic condition improved through foreign employment, they begin to send their children to the private boarding schools which is evident from the increasing rate of respondents who send children to private boarding school. The data reveals that after getting remittance from foreign employment the majority of the students are sent to community school i.e. 38.89% which decreased from by 1.12%. Likewise, the decrease rate of sending children to government school is also evident. There are only 37.78% children going to government school that is comparatively less than previous record. The significant increase in sending children to private boarding school is found to be 23.33% which is increased by 10% than earlier. One of the respondents Suresh Thapa says, “After getting remittance from foreign employment my sons and daughters are enrolled in private boarding school. Previously, due to the poverty, I could not enroll them in boarding school.” It reveals that after getting remittance from foreign employment, the respondents’ children are enrolled in private boarding schools. He again adds, “There is good teaching in boarding school. The children learn good English in private boarding school. So, I enrolled them in boarding school.” From the demand and need of English in present time, most families are interested to teach their children in private schools. The financially poor families cannot send their children are private schools so they send to government schools. Some poor families who sale their wage in labor also send their children at private schools. It is accepted in the community that the private schools provide better education than the government schools.
Families of good economic condition and taking high amount of remittance send their children at private schools. The expense on education is higher of those families who send their children in private school/campus. The expenditure pattern on education is determined by what subject a student chooses. It is found that rich households who are able to expend high amount of money but their children left study.
The capacity of expending on education is increased from remittance. It is found that poor families also teach their children in private schools and they go to boarding school after getting remittance. It is found that foreign employees are interested to give technical education and skills to their family members because they understood the value of technical education. Another cause of providing technical education to their children is that there is a high demand of technical education in the international market. Good technical human resource easily gets job in the international and national market. They have this lesson from foreign employment.
5.2.7 Problems Faced by Respondents
Foreign employment is a very challenging job since it is unknown territory for the employers. In the unknown territory working for hours, doing strange jobs and hearing strange language is difficult. The study reveals that only 24 respondents have suffered from the problems. In foreign employment, the respondents suffered from various problems. These problems are categorized as ‘overload of work, hard physical labour, unfavourable environment, problem in food and mental torture at workstation. The following table shows the problems faced by foreign employees:
Table No. 19
Problems faced by the respondents
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The above table shows that half of the respondents suffered from overload of work which is 50%, followed by hard physical labour by 26.67%, problem in food 20%, mental torture at workstation 20% and the least suffered from unfavourable environment which is 13.33%. One of the respondents Ram Narayan Yadav who worked for 14 hours a day reveals, “I worked for the whole day but the boss never let me go until its 9 PM. I nearly worked for 14 hours a day but never received any extra money for overtime.” It reveals that some of the Nepali youths are compelled to work for extra hours but do not get any extra money.
From the interview with the respondents, it reveals that they have to work continuously. Those who worked as a labourer in Nepal does not feel it as a overload of work but those who did not work continuously suffered from overload of work. In the same way, the helpers and labourers are suffered from hard physical labour which is uplifting the cement, iron and other materials while transporting. Some of the respondents also suffered from the environmental change. These respondents felt very hot in the foreign land because they have to work outdoor. In the same way, some of the respondents felt problem with food because they do not get rice, pulse and vegetable as per the Nepalese system. The mental torture at the workstation gave much tension to the respondents since they have to complete the said task at the right time.
5.3 Economic Changes by Remittance
Remittance has its global effect on every strata of the society including socio-political, economic and religious aspects. The study analyzes the changes by comparing the past and present economic status of the respondents wherever necessary. The economic changes made by remittance has been divided into various sub-topics which include change in occupation, loan taking status, landholding, use of fuel, electricity, availability of electronic devices and possession of transportation facilities.
5.3.1 Main Occupation of the Respondents
One of the main change that brought by remittance is the chance in occupation of the respondents. The respondents seek sectors for investment after their economic condition is good. The previous occupations have been replaced by the new occupations or the newness in the same occupation. The changes have been found in the occupations like business, agriculture, service, foreign employment and others. The following table shows the changes made by remittance on occupation of the respondents:
Change in Occupation
Source: Field Survey, 2012.
The above table clearly shows that the respondents are tempted to foreign employment which is suggested by the majority of the respondents i.e. 58.89%. The main occupation of the 58.89% of the respondents has become foreign employment. It is because they receive good income from foreign employment than any other work in Nepal. In the same way, 15.56% favored business. The respondents who like to invest in business sector or are investing in business sector took lesson from the foreign employment that doing business with hard work makes good profit. The decreasing trend in agricultural occupation shows that respondents are no more willing to join in agricultural since it needs very hard labour to make good profit. In the same way, those who are from good families like to involve in service sector which is 4.44% and the other 6.67% like to invest in education, vehicles and land buying and selling.
5.3.2 Loan Repayment
The loan taking of the foreign employers before going to foreign employment was high since their economic condition was poor. The respondents are obliged to take loan from different sources like bank, merchant, friends, relatives and selling lands. The following table shows the loan taking status of the respondents before and after going to foreign employment:
Table No. 21
Loan Taking Status of the Respondents
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table shows that before going to foreign employment 78.89% of the respondents took loan. There are only 21.11% respondents who did not take loan. Majority of the respondents are obliged to take loans since their economic condition is poor and they need to pay Manpower companies the cost of going to foreign employment.
But after going to foreign employment the trend has become reversed. That is to say 93.33% of the respondents do not take any loan after their family start receiving remittance. Despite these 6.67% of the respondents still take loans for business purpose. These respondents want to establish in some business, thus, their earned money became insufficient, so, they took the loan from merchants.
5.3.3 Change in Landholding Status
Landholding status also makes difference in the economic status of people. The study reveals that before going to foreign employment, the respondents’ sold their land but after getting remittance from foreign employment, they started to buy lands. The trend of buying land suggests that their economic condition is improved. The following table shows the landholding status of the respondents:
Table No. 22
Landholding Status of the Respondents
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table shows that 17 respondents sold their land below 5 kattha before going to foreign employment, followed by 2 respondents who sold 5-10 kattha of land and finally 3 respondents sold their 10 kattha to 1 bigaha of land. After getting remittance from foreign employment, the rate of selling land is decreased significantly whereas the buy of land started. The data reveals that 5 respondents buy below 5 kattha, followed by 4 respondents buy 5-10 kattha of land and only 1 respondents buy 10 kattha to 1 bigaha of land.
It is also informed to the researcher that before going in foreign employment, the respondents are obliged to sell their lands but after their economic condition is improved by remittance, they started purchasing lands.
5.3.4 Use of Fuel
The use of fuel refers to the fuel used for cooking food. Before going to foreign employment most of the respondents’ economic condition was poor but after going to foreign employment they started sending money to their home. The remittance received by their family makes change in their standard of using different things. The following table shows the use of fuel for cooking by the respondents’ family before and after going to foreign employment.
Table No. 23
Use of Fuel by the Respondents’ Family
* Multiple Responses
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table shows that before going to foreign employment majority of the respondents i.e. 94.44% used wood to cook their food. The majority of the respondents are obliged to use wood for cooking since their economic condition obliges them to use other means of fuel. It is also revealed that 4.44% of the respondents used gasoline for cooking food and only 2.22% of the respondents used LP Gas for the purpose of cooking food before going to foreign employment.
The table also shows that after going to foreign employment, the respondents’ send remittance to their family. The effect of remittance can be seen in their use of fuel. The data reveals that the respondents using wood decreases from 94.44% to 72.22%. It is because the respondents’ family received remittance from foreign employment and they started using LP gas. The fact becomes clear when we compare the data of using LP Gas respondents. It is evident that before going to foreign employment, there were only 2.22% of the respondents using LP gas whereas after going to foreign employment the rate of using LP gas has significantly increased to 18.89%. The data also shows the decrease in use of Gasoline which decreases from 4.44% to 3.33%.
It is revealed from the study that the effect of remittance can be seen in respondents’ use of fuel since significant number of respondents started using LP gas and left using wood for cooking purpose.
5.3.5 Electricity Facility
One of the aspects of determining economic change is the electricity use facility of the respondents. The study examines the electricity facility taken by the respondents before going to foreign employment and after getting remittance from foreign employment. The following table shows the details of the use of electricity by the respondents:
Table No. 24
Use of Electricity
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table clearly shows that before going to foreign employment majority of the respondents have no access to electricity which is suggested by 81.11% not using electricity facility. Only the 18.88% of the respondents are found using electricity facility before going to foreign employment. The major cause of not using electricity facility is due to the poor economic status as well as lack of knowledge about the use of electricity. On the other hand, the respondents cannot afford to join electricity facility at their home.
But after getting remittance from foreign employment, the use of electricity by the respondents’ family significantly increases from 18.88% to 73.33%. It shows that since their economic condition is improved from remittance, they started using electricity facility The respondents who do not have access to electricity are only 26.66& shows the decrease in the rate of not using electricity than before. For example, the use of electric light, iron, computer etc.
The study finds that majority of the respondents have access to electricity after getting remittance from foreign employment. The living standard of the respondent is found much improved than earlier. The increase rate of using electricity not only suggests that they have access to electricity but also they started using electronic devices in their family.
5.3.6 Availability of Electronic Devices
The availability of electronic devices in respondents’ house also proves their changed economic status. When people are become able to purchase electronic devices, they certainly make use of such devices in order to make their work easier. The other purpose of using electronic devices is for communication, education and information. The following table shows the availability of electronic devices in the respondents house:
Table No. 25
Availability of Electronic Devices
Source: Field Survey, 2012
Due to the multiple response, the percentage is more than hundred.
The above data reveals that before going to foreign employment majority of the respondents have no electronic devices which is 79%. It shows that before going to foreign employment their possession of electronic devices is very low. The respondents did not have any electronic devices since their economic status is poor. Since they were suffering from the hand to mouth problems, they cannot buy electronic devices. The data also shows that 14.44% of the respondents have radio, 2.22% have mobile and the same percentage also have T.V. and camera too.
The study reveals the change in possession of electronic devices after getting remittance from foreign employment. It shows that majority of the respondents i.e. 95.56% have radio and 28.89% of the respondents have T.V. in their houses. In the same way, 58.88% of the respondents have mobile in their house, 7.78% of the respondents have digital camera and only 3.33% of the respondents have computer and laptop in the house.
The study explores that majority of the respondents’ possession of electronic devices is increased after they receive remittance from foreign employment. The study also finds that after going to foreign employment, the use of electronic devices by the respondents’ family significantly increased. It is also important to note that since most of the respondents have access to electronic they certainly purchase electronic devices.
One of the variable that indicates the economic status of the respondents is possession of vehicles for transportation. The study reveals the possession of vehicles before and after going for foreign employment. The following table shows the details about the possession of vehicles by the respondents’ family:
Table No. 26
Possession of Vehicles
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table clearly shows that before going to foreign employment only 14 respondents possessed vehicles. Majority of which possessed bicycle which is 14.44% and the possession of motorbike by only one respondent which is 1.11%.
The study reveals that after going for foreign employment, the possession of vehicles has also increased. It shows that possession of bicycle by the respondents increased from 14.44% to 23.33% and the possession of motorbike increased from 1.11% to 3.33%. The new vehicles like jeep and bus have also been purchased by the respondents which is 1.11% for both.
It is clear that after receiving remittance from foreign employment, the respondents who buy car and bus are only for business purpose. The respondents revealed the fact that they want to invest in transportation sector so they purchased car and bus. They express that according to their interest, they buy car and bus and want to work in their own. By this they are recognized as rich and prosperous ones. The borrowing of jeep also increased the facility of transportation on the one hand and raised their income on the other.
5.3.8 Change in Habits/ Behavior
When people involve in employment and earn money, their behavior changes. They begin to create some relations in their surround. Then, the perspective of the society on seeing him is also changed. If persons earn money from positive works, their status in society is increased and if persons do bad work in society though their earning is good, his status and identity in society becomes negative.
The respondents are quite a lot changed after their return from foreign employment. Some of the respondents built up their habit of playing cards, gambling and drinking. Some started taking meat as a food. The foreign employment returnees’ habits have also been changed since they are habituated with work from morning to evening, they go for morning walk in the morning and will to work in the fields also. The realization of importance of money made them more conscious while spending. The feeling of cooperation and mutual help increased. The general talking about the politics have also changed since they now regret on the political consensus. Their conversation is most of the time accorded with the flavor of system operating other developed nations.
The feeling of respect to the elders as well as older have also been quite changed. Those who never respected the old grandparents started loving them. The feeling of brotherhood has also been increased. The respect for job has also filled their minds since they realized that there is no work that is inferior or superior in the foreign countries.
The foreign employment is not the present time phenomena in the society. It was in the past, it is now at present, and it will continue in the future. The society goes on moving in this direction. The foreign employment gives chances to persons to know new culture, education, technology and knowledge. Therefore, social relations, health and education behavior change day by day.
5.4 Socio-Religious Changes
The remittance has its effect on socio-religious aspects of the respondents. It is evident that respondents’ interest in religious ceremonies has been significantly increased after returning from the foreign employment. The remittance has also been used in the religious sector. The involvement in religious ceremonies also proves that their custom, habits and beliefs are changed. The study reveals such changes in different sub-topics herewith.
5.4.1 Involvement in Social/Religious Ceremonies
The respondents’ involvement in socio-religious activities also indicates that they are somehow interested in religious aspects. When people are satisfied with their status, they praise gods and believe in gods. It is human nature that when a man is happy he certainly blesses god for his happiness. The involvement in socio-religious ceremonies also indicates the changing pattern of the society due to the effect of remittance. The following table shows the frequency and percentage of involvement in socio-religious ceremonies by the respondents:
Table No. 27
Involvement of Respondents in Socio-Religious Ceremonies
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table clarifies the fact that before going to foreign employment the rate of involvement in socio-religious ceremonies is only 3.33% but after they get remittance from foreign employment, their involvement in socio-religious ceremonies has been significantly increased. It is evident that the number of respondents who involve in religious ceremonies increases from 3.33% upto 25.56%.
The study also reveals that still there are 74.44% of the respondents who do not involve in socio-religious ceremonies. Anyway, the involvement in socio-religious ceremonies has been increased after receiving remittances.
5.4.2 Food Habit
Food habit suggests the use of different food in daily use. The study reveals that the food habit of cent percent of the respondents has been changed. The change in food habit is also characterized by their economic status. When the economic status becomes strong, certainly the food habit changes. The researcher finds that all the respondents’ food habit has been changed. Due to the effect of remittance the respondents spend more money in foods than before. On the other hand, due to the inflation the rate of the every consumable stuff has been increased but that is not the matter here. The matter here is that since economic condition of the respondents improved, their food habit has also been changed. Some of the respondents also replied that they started dieting which is also the effect of modernization as well as the impact of remittance of food habit. In addition, the habit of respondents regarding purchase of goods and materials have also changed since they no more bargain nowadays while buying foods. They pay the said price to the seller. The use of meat and fish has also been increased. The use of whiskey, rum, beer has also been increased.
The use of cloth also proves the standard of people. By observation and interview, the researcher reveals the fact that before going to foreign employment, the respondents’ family used low costly clothes. But the gradual change in clothing from low costly to medium costly to standard shows that the clothing habit of the respondents has also been changed. The following table shows the details about clothing habit of the respondents’ family:
Table No. 28
The Use of Standard Clothes
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table clearly shows that before going to foreign employment most of the respondents used low-costly clothes which is 78.89%. There are only 12.22% of the respondents who use medium costly and 8.89% of the respondents who use standard clothes. The study clarifies the fact that before going to foreign employment the consumption of low-costly clothes have been in majority.
The study explores the fact that after receiving remittance from foreign employment, the use of standard and medium-costly clothes have been increased which are 23.33% and 42.44% respectively. The use of low costly clothes have been decreased from 78.89% to 34.44% suggests that with the improvement in economic condition of the respondents, the use of standard and medium costly clothes increased whereas the use of low-costly clothes decreased.
5.4.4 Use of Toilet/ Bathroom
The study aimed to take information about the respondents’ use of toilet and bathroom. The study found two type of toilet in the study area which are Kachhi and Pakki toilet. It is found that cent percent of the respondents have toilet before and after receiving remittance from foreign employment. Only there is change in the type of toilet with the change in their economic status. The following table shows the details about the use of toilet before and after receiving remittance:
Table No. 29
Use of Toilet
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table shows that before going for foreign employment majority of the respondents’ toilet was kachhi i.e. 78.89% whereas there were only 21.11% pakki toilets. Due to the poor economic condition, the respondents are obliged to use Kachhi toilet. But after receiving remittance from foreign employment, the use of Pakki toilet has significantly increased from 21.11% upto 42.22% whereas the Kachhi toilets decrease from 78.89 % to 57.78%.
The study found that most of the respondents have used Kachhi toilet due to their poor economic condition. But when their economic condition is improved, they made Pakki toilets. The researcher also observed that the life of respondents who are receiving remittance is changing from complication to sophistication.
5.4.5 Use of Ornaments
The use of ornaments also helps to know the socio-economic as well as religious aspect of the respondents. In Hindu society, a woman has to wear ornaments after marriage. But due to the modernization, the trend has been changing. The following table shows the use of ornaments by the respondents’ family:
Table No. 30
Use of Ornaments
Source: Field Survey, 2012
The above table clarifies that before going for foreign employment there were 74.44% respondents whose family members used ornaments whereas there were only 25.55% respondents who do not have ornaments. It is because 25.55% respondents’ family cannot afford to buy ornaments made of Gold and silver since their economic status is very poor. The respondents who are suffering from the hand-to mouth problem cannot buy such ornaments for the purpose of beauty and pride.
The study explores that after receiving remittance from the foreign employment, the number of respondents increased upto 91.11% whereas there are only 8.88% who do not use ornaments. It shows that since economic condition of the respondents is improved they also invested their money on ornaments. Some of the respondents also replied that they do not like ornaments so they didn’t buy it.
The remittance has its effect on socio-economic and religious aspects of the society. The society is characterized by the economic status. Economic status is also called the backbone of every society. Thus, the improvement in economic condition has its global effect on other aspects of the society.
5.5 Status of Women
The status of women has also been significantly changed after the family received remittance. The women of the Sabaila VDC act as if they are the master of house. They participate in decision making activities. Some of the women also go for information education classes. The economic improvement of the family also made their household works easier since the use of gas, vehicle and drinking water facilities. Their involvement in women’s community group also empowered them and take part in decision making activities.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The main objective of this study is to identify the causes of going to foreign employment, utilization of remittance and the socio-economic and religious changes brought about in the study area. Moreover, the study tried to compare the past and present status of the respondents regarding socio-economic and religious aspects in order to map changes made by remittance. The socio-economic characteristics of foreign employees, sources of financing and cost of foreign employment and change brought by foreign employment and remittance in household economy and uses of remittance are some of the major aspect that present study covers.
To fulfill the objectives of the present study, Sabaila VDC of Dhanusa district was selected and a sample survey was conducted during 2012. The sample size was 90 households that were chosen by random sampling method and data were collected through questionnaire method. Data are analyzed by using simple statistical tools such as number and percentage. From the study, following summary is drawn.
From the present study, following recommendations are suggested for the management and regulation of foreign employment and remittance economy in true sense are as follows.
Finally, one entitled case study of remittance in Sabaila VDC which is the important current issue of nation is very significant, while the study is conducted in small size and may not be sufficient to generalize for the whole nation about labor migration. From this study the researcher is confident that it will be certainly beneficial to the people of Sabaila VDC and side by side for the people of other neighboring VDCs of the Dhanusa district.
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Remittance and its Impact on Changing Social Patterns
(a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( )
(a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( )
(a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( )
If yes, why? ……………………………….
If yes, how many are there? ……………..
iii) Wedding like social ritual ( )
If not, why?
iii) Lack of market ( )
If no, why?