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Thesis Proposal for English : M.Ed. English TU

Thesis Proposal for English : M.Ed. English TU

A Research Proposal

On

PROFICIENCY OF GRADE 12 STUDENTS IN LISTENING ENGLISH SONGS

 

 

 

 

 

Submitted to

The Department of English Education

in Partial Fulfilment for Master’s Degree in Education
(Specialization in English Education)

 

 

 

Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University

Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

 

 

 

 

 

Submitted by:

Your Name….

T.U. Regd. No.

Second Year Exam Roll No.:

Date of Submission: 2075/05/ ….

  1. Introduction

The present study is about the “Proficiency of Grade 12 Students in Listening English Songs”. This chapter includes general background, review of related literature, objectives of the study and significance of the study.

1.1 General Background

We all know that language is a means of communication. The purpose of teaching a language is to enable the students to communicate in that language. It is quite essential that every second of every language class is directed to equip students with the language skill they really need. Language begins from listening. Listening is the pre-requisite for speaking. Why, usually, the deaf people are dumb? is the fact that they could not learn to speak due to the lack of listening. Children can only speak after they listen.

Students need to be able to listen to a variety of things in a number of different ways. In the first place, they need to be able to recognize paralinguistic clues such as intonation in order to understand mood and meaning. They also need to be able to listen for specific information (such as times, platform numbers, etc), and sometimes for mere general understanding (when they are listening to a story or interacting in a social conversation). A lot will depend on the particular genres they are working with.

Harmer (2008, p. 135/ 36) has discussed about some principles of listening:

Principle 1: Encourage students to listen as often and as much as possible

The more students listen, the better they get at listening- and the better they get at understanding pronunciation and at using it appropriately themselves. One of our main tasks, therefore, will be to use as much listening in class as possible, and to encourage students to listen to as much English as they can (via the Internet, podcast, CDs, tapes, etc.)


Principle 2: Help students prepare to listen

Students need to be made ready to listen. This means they will need to look at pictures, discuss the topic, or read the questions first, for example, in order to be in a position to predict what is coming. This is not just that they are in the right frame of mind (and are thinking about the topic), but also so that they are engaged with the topic and the task and really want to listen.

Principle 3: Once may not be enough

There are almost no occasions when the teacher will play an audio track only once. Students will want to hear it again to pick up the things they missed the first time- and we may well want them to have a chance to study some of the language features on the tape.

In the case of live listening, students should be encouraged to ask for repetition and clarification when they need it.

The first listening to a text is often used just to give students an idea of what the speakers sound like, and what the general topic is ( see principle 5) so that subsequent listenings are easier for them. For subsequent listening, we may stop the audio track at various points, or only play extracts from it. However, we will have to ensure that we don’t go on and on working with the same audio track.

Principle 4: Encourage students to respond to the content of a listening, not just to the language.

An important part of a listening sequence is for teachers to draw out the meaning of what is being said, discern what is intended and find out what impression it makes on the students. Questions such as ‘Do you agree with what they say?’ and ‘Did you7 find the listening interesting? Why?’ are just as important as questions like ‘What language did she use to invite him?’ However, any listening material is also useful for studying language use and a range of pronunciation issues.

Principle 5: Different listening stages demand different listening tasks.

Because there are different things we want to do with a listening text, we need to set different tasks for different listening stages. This means that, for a first listening, the task (s) may need to be fairly straightforward and general. The way, the students’ general understanding and response can be successful- and the stress associated with listening can be reduced.

Later listenings, however, may focus in on detailed information, language use or pronunciation etc. will be the teachers’ job to help students to focus it on what they are listening for.

Principle 6: Good teachers exploit listening texts to the full.

If teacher ask students to invest time and emotional energy in a listening text- and if they themselves have spent time choosing and preparing the listening sequence- then it makes sense to use the audio track or live listening experience for as many different applications as possible. Thus, after an initial listening, the teacher can play a track again for various kinds of study before using the subject matter, situation or audioscript for a new activity. The listening then becomes an important event in a teaching sequence rather than just an exercise by itself.

The language e.g. skills listening, speaking, reading and writing are not only in while learning a language but also in real life situation. However, in the real life situation, some language specialists focus more on reading and writing neglecting listening and speaking. American linguist William Moulton, in a report prepared for the 9th International Congress of Linguists, emphasized that language teaching methodology should be based on “speech, not writing” (Richards and Rodgers, 1995: 49). In Nepal, the English language learning situation is concerned its written exposure which is inadequate for the learners; particularly in the field of authentic listening materials. Therefore, this study had attempted to find out the usage and effectiveness of materials in teaching listing skill.

1.2 Language Skills:  An Introduction

To be competent over a language, a speaker needs to have command over the language skills. Language skills refer to those skills which make communication perfect by the use of language. We know that language is a means of communication. Communication is possible in two mediums in language; spoken medium and written medium. In spoken medium listening and speaking go side by side. These two skills, i.e. listening and speaking, are the basic or primary skills of language in the sense that even an illiterate person can communicate using these two skills.

In other words, only through the spoken medium communication is also possible. In written medium reading and writing skills are essential skills. Reading and writing are the intellectual tasks. Only the literate person can practise them. Therefore, these two skills, viz. reading and writing, can be considered as the secondary skills in language learning.

Although, there are four language skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing. Listening precedes speaking. In the very beginning of language learning, speaking is impossible without listening. Therefore, listening is the main cause of speaking. Reading precedes writing. Learning language through reading and writing is visual perception. Without the knowledge of reading no one can write. Moreover, the two language skills, listening and speaking precede reading and writing. To sum up, we can mention that there is a hierarchy of language skills; Listening-Speaking-Reading-Writing.

These four language skills should be integrated while practising a language. However, considering the time factor the researcher mainly focused on listening skill, the primary one, in order to get its methodological effectiveness in classroom teaching.

1.2.1 Listening Comprehension

Beginning in the early 70’s, work by Asher, Postovsky, Winitz and, later, Krashen, brought attention to the role of listening as a tool for understanding and emphasized it as a key factor in facilitating language learning. Thus, listening has emerged as an important component in the process of second language acquisition (Feyten, 1991).

According to Howatt and Dakin (1974), listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying. This process involves understanding a speaker’s accent or pronunciation, the speaker’s grammar and vocabulary, and comprehension of meaning. An able listener is capable of doing these four things simultaneously.

Thomlison’s (1984) definition of listening includes “active listening,” which goes beyond comprehending as understanding the message content, to comprehension as an act of empathetic understanding of the speaker.

Furthermore, Gordon (1985) argues that empathy is essential to listening and contends that it is more than a polite attempt to identify a speaker’s perspectives. Rather more importantly, empathetic understanding expands to “egocentric prosocial behavior”. Thus, the listener altruistically acknowledges concern for the speaker’s welfare and interests.

Ronald and Roskelly (1985) define listening as an active process requiring the same skills of prediction, hypothesizing, checking, revising, and generalizing that writing and reading demand; and these authors present specific exercises to make students active listeners who are aware of the “inner voice” one hears when writing.

According to Bulletin (1952), listening is the fundamental language skill. It is the medium through which people gain a large portion of their education, their information, their understanding of the world and of human affairs, their ideals, sense of values, and their appreciation. In this day of mass communication, much of it oral, it is of vital importance that students are taught to listen effectively and critically.

According to second language acquisition theory, language input is the most essential condition of language acquisition. As an input skill, listening plays a crucial role in students’ language development. Krashen (1985) argues that people acquire language by understanding the linguistic information they hear. Thus language acquisition is achieved mainly through receiving understandable input and listening ability is the critical component in achieving understandable language input. Given the importance of listening in language learning and teaching, it is essential for language teachers to help students become effective listeners. In the communicative approach to language teaching, this means modeling listening strategies and providing listening practice in authentic situations: precisely those that learners are likely to encounter when they use the language outside the classroom.

  1. a) The process of listening comprehension

With a greater understanding of language quality and the development of teaching theory, there has been a recognition of the process of listening comprehension as needing greater emphasis. Listening is an invisible mental process, making it difficult to describe. However, it is recognized by Wipf (1984) that listeners must discriminate between sounds, understand vocabulary and grammatical structures, interpret stress and intonation, understand intention and retain and interpret this within the immediate as well as the larger socio-cultural context of the utterance. Rost (2002) defines listening, in its broadest sense, as:

“A process of receiving what the speaker actually says (receptive orientation); constructing and representing meaning (constructive orientation); negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding (collaborative orientation); and, creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy (transformative orientation). Listening, then, is a complex, active processes of interpretation in which listeners match what they hear with what they already know.”

  1. b) Strategies of listening comprehension

Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input.

Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next.

Top-down strategies include:

  • listening for the main idea
  • predicting
  • drawing inferences
  • summarizing

Bottom-up strategies are text based in which the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include:

  • listening for specific details
  • recognizing cognates
  • recognizing word-order patterns

Listening comprehension tends to be an interactive, interpretive process in which listeners use prior knowledge and linguistic knowledge in understanding messages. Listeners use metacognitive, cognitive and socio-affective strategies to facilitate comprehension and to make their learning more effective. Metacognitive strategies are important because they regulate and direct the language learning process. Research shows that skilled listeners use more metacognitive strategies than their less-skilled counterparts (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990, Vandergrift, 1997a). The use of cognitive strategies helps students to manipulate learning materials and apply specific techniques to a listening task. Socio-affective strategies describe the techniques listeners use to collaborate with others, to verify understanding or to lower anxiety.

1.2.1 Importance of Listening Skill

There is one saying on the regard of computer ‘Garbage in Garbage out’(complied by Sthapit et al. 1994 adopted from We’re in Business by Susan Norman). If we input bad things in the computer the output will also be bad. Thus, we know that the main source of input of our mind is listening. If we listen incorrect things or even listen correct things but interpret it incorrectly then it will be worthless or sometimes harmful. Underwood (1989:1), says,

“Listening is the activity of paying attention to and trying to get meaning from something we hear. To listening successfully to spoken language, we need to be able to work out what speakers mean when they use particular words in particular ways on particular occasions, and not simply to understand the words themselves. A speaker saying ‘You’re late’ for example, may be wishing to convey any one of a range of meanings: simply stating the fact that you have arrived late, or complaining because he/she has had to wait, or expressing surprise because he/she did not expect you to arrive late. What the speaker means lies only partly in the words spoken, and you, as the listener, must recognise and interpret the other factors which are used to convey the message to you.”

Therefore, our brain mechanisms process the data which are received through the ears. Received data should be correct otherwise the interpretation of the data will be meaningless. In the very beginning of language learning, the learner has to listen the same things many times to understand the spoken text. If we listen more then we speak more. Speech comprehension or listening is an active knowledge guided process.

O’Connor (ibid:5)  warns and says,

“A tape recorder will not do the job for you; it is a useful instrument, but it is not a magic wand which will make your English perfect without any effort from you. It is useful only because it enables you to listen to yourself from the outside . . .”

Communication is not a one way process; there should be speaker and listener. If the listener can not understand the speaker because of his poor listening skill then the communication can not succeed. That is why there should be good ear training for good listening. Language learning means to be able to communicate with the language. To communicate, the listener should have good listening skill. To make the students competent in listening skill, the language teacher has to make his listening class effective. Teaching materials help to make the class effective.

Listening comprehension depends upon the purpose or reason of listening. The purpose of listening will be many and varied, depending on what they need and wish to do. According to Galvin as quoted by Underwood (ibid: 4) there are five main reasons for listening:

  • to engage in social rituals
  • to exchange information
  • to exert control
  • to share feelings
  • to enjoy yourself

Underwood (ibid: 5) points out other listening situations for which teachers should prepare their students. That include: listening to live conversations in which one takes no part; usually referred to as ‘eavesdropping’.

  • listening to announcement
  • listening to the news, the weather forecast, etc, on the radio.
  • watching the news, the weather forecast, etc on television.
  • listening to the radio for entertainment
  • watching television for entertainment
  • watching a live performance of a play
  • watching a film in a cinema
  • listening to records
  • following a lesson
  • attending a lecture
  • listening on the telephone
  • following instruction
  • listening to someone giving a public address

The main aim of oral language teaching is generally to enable the students to participate fully and comfortably in conversation, both as speakers and as listeners. Classroom teaching should be objective oriented, it should not be only examination oriented. Classroom teaching should fulfil the objectives which are intended by the curriculum. Therefore, teachers should be aware of the proper classroom teaching. They have to choose suitable materials at right time to make the teaching effective. In fact, no material is absolutely right or wrong in itself but it depends upon the situation and subject matter of teaching. There is no doubt on the value and usefulness of live presentation and other recorded materials in the field of teaching listening skill. Listening triggers speaking. Listening and speaking make the communication possible. Language is a means of communication. Therefore, to be competent over a language first of all listening skill should be made better.

1.2.2 Teaching Listening Skill in Secondary Level in Nepal

In Nepal, listening to text in English was first introduced after NEP-2049. Before the implementation of NEP-2049, language skills were not taught separately; they were taught integratedly but new curriculum pointed out the objectives of each skills. The text books were prepared according to the objectives of the curriculum. The secondary level curriculum pointed out the following objectives of teaching listening:

  • Show understanding of variety of authentic listening text,
  • Listen to spoken text, understand the gist and retrieve specific information from it,
  • Record in note or summary from the main points of spoken message,
  • Respond appropriately to spoken directions or instructions.

(Source: Secondary Education Curriculum, 2057).

Listening skill is emphasized through the use of tapes recorded by both Nepali speakers and native speakers. All the exercises based on the tapes are developed to enable the students to improve their pronunciation skills and their skill in extracting information from the scripts. There are two types of tape materials; core materials which include all the tape scripts used in the listening exercise and additional materials including some of the poems, conversations of short dramas, etc.

In sum, the secondary level curriculum is communicative based. In communicative language teaching four skills are taught, therefore all four skills should be tested separately. To assess these four skills, the curriculum allocated the marks to each skill separately. Out of hundred marks, 8 marks is allocated to listening skill,12 marks is allocated to speaking skill,45 marks is allocated to reading skill and 35 marks is allocated to writing skill.

Although the curriculum attempted to cover all four skills of language, four skills are not equally emphasized. Listening skill is the foundation of other three language skills, yet it is least emphasized. Listening skill is least emphasized in the sense that its weighting is only 8 marks.

1.2.2.1 Types of Listening Materials

Listening materials refer to those materials to which the students listen to in the classroom teaching. For being proficient in listening to the aural-oral texts are very useful. Those materials are designed and selected according to the objectives of the lesson, level and interest of the learners, availability of the materials, etc. Generally, listening materials are classified into two types: recorded materials and live materials.

1.2.2.2 Recorded Materials

If a teacher teaches a lesson by using cassette player, it is known as recorded material. The listening materials are designed and recorded for presenting in the classroom for achieving specific purposes in listening skill. The recorded materials provide a chance for students to listen to a variety of voices.

1.2.2.3 Types of Record Materials

There are different types of recorded materials in the field of language teaching. They are classified on the basis of their contents. Cross (1992:250) says,

The content of the recorded material you use will depend on the age of the learners, the nature of the course followed, the availability of speakers to make recordings and the clarity with which anglophone broadcasts can be picked up. Where professional recordings of textbook materials are not available, you can contrive home-made ones to support the course. The investment of time is not great, and the tapes can be used year after year.

Cross (ibid) classifies the recorded materials into three main categories: authentic, scripted, and semi-scripted texts.

Authentic Texts

These are the recordings made from the radio, live recordings of the language in the street or market place recording to unedited and unscripted talks or discussions, and so on. They are suitable for advanced classes for the most part, as we can exercise no control over the content.

Scripted Texts

These are recordings of fluent speakers reading exactly what is on a page, but trying to sound spontaneous. Published textbook support materials are of this sort. They are representative of the ways in which people really speak to each other, but they can be very useful, though. They are certainly better than no listening at all.

Semi-scripted Texts

These are the useful compromise for learners who want the exercise some control in listening and some of them want a class to hear more or less authentic forms of listening recorded materials. So, the speakers are given guidelines or a list of points in abbreviated form and they are to express these ideas their own ways. These types of texts are more practical than other type of recorded listening texts.

1.2.2.4 Using a Cassette Recorder

Cassette recorder is a useful instrument to teach language. Through the use of cassette recorder the learners can learn the language with entertainment but it does not be the job for teacher. The teacher has to handle it properly. Each teacher should have good skill to handle it. In the words of Doff (1992:204):

“Listening to a cassette recording is much more difficult than listening to the teacher. When we listen to someone ‘face to face’, there are many visual clues (e.g. gestures, lip movements) which help us to listen. When we listen to a cassette these clues are missing. In a large class with bad acoustics, listening to a cassette may be very difficult indeed. Up to a point, trying to listen to something that is not clear can provide good listening practice, but if it is too difficult it will must be frustrating.”

Doff (ibid) presents the following guidelines for using recorded materials.

  • Introduce the listening, and give one or two guiding questions.
  • Play the cassette once without stopping, and discuss the guiding questions.
  • Play the cassette again. This time, focus on important points, pausing and asking what the person said each time. If students are unable to ‘catch’ the remark, rewind the cassette a little way and play it again.
  • After your demonstration, discuss the technique. Emphasize that the aim is to focus on the most important remarks only, but not, of course, to go through the whole of a listening the phrase by phrase.

Apart from the above guidelines we can use a cassette recorder according to the demand and need of the students, until they understand the text.

1.2.2.5 Live Materials

When a teacher uses her/his own voice for the purpose of teaching, as mentioned earlier, it is known as live materials. It develops face to face classroom interaction so that the students see many visual clues, which help them to listen effectively.

1.3 Importance of English Songs

How can ELT be made enjoyable and effective? One feasible pedagogical application is to integrate English songs into ELT. Song, a combination of music and lyrics, possesses many intrinsic merits, such as a kaleidoscope of culture, expressiveness, recitability and therapeutic functions, which render it an invaluable source for language teaching. This provides theoretical arguments and practical support for using English songs in ELT.

Songs have been an amusing companion for human beings for as long as or even longer than we can speak. As an integral part of our language experience, it can be of great value to foreign language teaching. And the many-faceted merits songs possess may enrich and activate our foreign language class. Georgi Lozanov incorporates music into his teaching method—Suggestopedia, for music is instrumental in creating a relaxing and comfortable environment, which can propel language learning (Larsen-Freeman, 1985). Besides music, another indispensable element of songs is lyrics which serve as a direct genuine source of teaching materials in foreign language classes, so why should songs be overlooked by the teachers? There have been abundant researches abroad on songs as an authentic teaching resource in language teaching (Maley, 1997; Eken, 1996; Gaston, 1968; Geoff, 2003), but a paucity of such studies are reported in China. This paper endeavors to demonstrate the value of English songs in ELT and meanwhile reports several specific teaching activities as serious attempts to work it out in EFL classrooms.

1.4 Review of Related Literature

Chapagain (1999) conducted a research on “Use of Teaching Materials and it’s Impact in English Language Learning”. In this study, he has given the history of teaching materials as well. He states that the history of teaching materials in Nepal started with the publication of a textbook prepared at the time of Rana Prime Minister Dev Shamsher. The primary teaching materials were a few textbook and blackboard. The textbooks also were not sufficient by then. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of teaching materials in language teaching and to suggest the effective use of teaching materials. The researcher selected sixth grade students of public school from Panchthar District as primary sources and curriculum, textbook, dictionaries, grammar book were used as a secondary source. The tool used for the collection of data was test items. After the analysis and interpretation of data, it was concluded that teaching materials are integral part of the English language teaching and they have very positive impact in learning English. They not only aid a positive dimension in maintaining the result percent but also improve the entire language proficiency in English.

Acharya (2001) carried out a research to find out the effectiveness of recorded materials and live materials in teaching listening. It was found that recorded materials are slightly better than the live materials in teaching listening.

Limbu (2002) conducted a research entitled” Effects of animated films on the development of the spoken fluency in the children”. Her main objectives was to find out the contribution of animated English films to improve the spoken fluency of the secondary level students. She found that the different between the results of pre and post tests of experimental group was greater than the non-experimental group. The development of spoken fluency of the experimental group was found significantly greater. She also recommended to use animated films in teaching spoken English whenever possible. Curriculum planner should consider the use of animated films to make language teaching and learning more fun and realistic for the young learners.

Satyal (2003) carried out a research to find out the effectiveness of visual aids in teaching English at primary level. It was found that the use of visual aids in teaching at primary level is fruitful and effective

In similar way, Pandey (2007) conducted a research on ‘Effectiveness of Imitation Drill in Teaching Pronunciation’. He attempted to find out the effectiveness of imitation drill in teaching pronunciation and compare the students’ pronunciation in terms of boys’ versus girl’ performance. He concluded that the experimental group was found much better than the control group. The experimental group excelled the control group by 8.05 percent in the total performance. Moreover, he concluded that the boys of experimental group performed better than the boys of control group and the girls of experimental group performed better than the girls of controlled group by 3.83 percent in the post tests. In total performance, girls of experimental group performed better than the boys of experimental group.

Another research on Effectiveness of authentic materials was carried out by Ghimire (2007). He conducted a research on “Effectiveness of Authentic Materials in Teaching Reading Comprehension”. This study aimed at finding the effectiveness of authentic material in teaching reading comprehension and suggesting some pedagogical impactions. The researcher selected ninth grade students of Butwal Glory Boarding Higher Secondary School of Rupandehi District as the population of this study. The findings were that the authentic materials were of paramount importance in teaching reading comprehension. The students were highly motivated when authentic materials were used in teaching learning activities. That is why the researcher recommended that there should be the use of authentic material in teaching reading comprehension.

In the same way, Ghimire (2007) carried out a research on ‘The Effectiveness of Visual Aids in Teaching Vocabulary’. The objective of his study was to find out effectiveness of visual aids in teaching vocabulary. He carried out the research through experimental research and found out that the students learned vocabulary effectively if visual aids were used.

Although some researches are conducted in the area of visual aids and other materials used in teaching-learning in classroom; No research yet is carried out on the English songs which can contribute to improve the listening skill of the higher secondary students. I used questionnaire as my research tool. So my study will be unique from any researches carried out in the department so far.

1.5 Objectives of the Study

The study has the following objectives:

  1. To find out the proficiency of grade 12 students in listening English songs.
  2. To suggest some pedagogical implications.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Today, the use of English songs is increasing day by day. Most of the teenagers listens English songs, but it is not well known that why they listen to English songs instead of Nepali? Are they getting English songs? Are they getting any benefit from listening to it? Why can’t we use English songs in teaching English? These questions are unanswerable to the readers of Nepal. This study will be beneficial for the researchers, linguists, teachers, course designers, textbook writers, students, and others who are related to teaching and learning. It will be significant to discover that whether the students are listening English songs with understanding their meanings or they simply listen for the music and its tune and if not why they are listening English songs.


  1. Methodology

I will adopt the following methodology to fulfill the objectives of my study.

2.1 Sources of Data

I will use both types of sources of information to collect the data i.e. primary and secondary for my study. But primary sources will be on the basis for the collection of my data.

2.1.1 Primary Sources of Data

I will obtain the first hand data from the students of 12 class studying in different higher secondary schools of Kathmandu valley. So, those 12 class students will be the primary sources for the collection of my data.

2.1.2 Secondary Sources of Data

Various books, especially Bulletin (1952), Howatt and Dakin (1974), Thomlison’s (1984), Wipf (1984), Ellis, (1985), Gordon (1985), Larsen-Freeman (1985), Roskelly (1985), Krashen (1985), Underwood (1989), O’Malley & Hamot (1990), Feyten (1991), Cross (1992), Doff (1992), Gardner (1993), Vandergrift, (1997), Kramsch (2000), Rost (2002), Bolitho et al. (2003),  reports articles, research studies, internet related to the topic and theses of the Department of English Education will be used as secondary sources of data.

2.2 Population of the Study

Population for the study will be 40 students of class 12. These students will be selected from the 4 higher secondary schools of Kathmandu valley. Twenty students will be girls and 20 boys from each campus.

2.3 Sampling Procedure

The four colleges from Kathmandu valley will be selected purposively. Ten students from each of these colleges will be selected randomly using fishbowl draw method. Fifty percent will be boys and fifty percent girls.


2.4 Tools of Data Collection

Tools for the collection of my data will be four type of songs i.e. love song, rock, pop and sentimental.

2.4 Process of Data Collection

I will follow the following stepwise procedure to collect the required information for my study.

  • I will select four types of English songs first.
  • I will play the songs and administer to the test based on the songs.
  • Students will have to fill up the space after listening the songs.
  • I will collect the test papers from the students at the end of the allotted time.
  • Finally, I will thank all the students for the participation, the teaching staff and principals for provide me their invaluable time to collect the data from the students.

2.5 Limitations of the Study

  • The study will be limited to 4 colleges of Kathmandu
  • Only 40 students will be the population for my study.
  • Among them 20 students will be girls and 20 will be boys.
  • Only the students from 12 class and from major English group will be selected.
  • The study will be limited to only English songs.
  • Only four types (Love, rock, pop and sentimental) songs will be used.
  1. Analysis, Interpretation and Presentation of Data

The data collected through questionnaire will be analyzed and will be presented along with the description and different graphs, charts, tables etc.

  1. Findings and Recommendations

On the basis of the analysis and interpretation of the data collected, findings will be reduced and some pedagogical implications will also be suggested.


  1. Work Plan
ActivitiesTime (in weeks)
Preliminary study1
Development of research tools1
Data collection3
Data Analysis and interpretation3
Completion of the first draft2
Completion of the final draft2
Total12 weeks

REFERENCES

Acharya, H.L. (2001). The Effectiveness of Recorded Materials and Live Materials in Teaching Listening.  An Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, T.U.

Bolitho, R., Carter, R., Hughes, R., Ivanic, R., Masuhara, H. & Tomlinson, B. (2003). “Ten questions about language awareness”, ELT Journal 57/3: 251-259.

Chapagain, T.R. (1999). Use of teaching materials and its impact in English language learning. An unpublished thesis of M. Ed., Department of English Education, T.U. Kirtipur, Kathmandu

Cross, P. Learning is about making connections: Cross paper number 3. League for Innovation in the Community College, 1992.

Doff A. 1992. Teach English: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Eken, D. K. (1996). Ideas for using pop songs in the English language classroom. English Teaching Forum 34: 234-41.

Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Feyten, C. M. (1991). The Power of Listening Ability: An Overlooked Dimension in Language Acquisition. The Modern Language Journal 75:173-80.

Gaston, E.T. (1968). Music in Therapy. New York: Macmillan.

Geoff, P.S. (2003). Music and mondegreens: extracting meaning from noise. ELT Journal 57/2: 113-121

Ghimire, S. (2007).  Effectiveness of authentic materials in teaching reading comprehension. An unpublished thesis of M. Ed. Department of English Education. T.U. Kirtipur. Kathmandu

Gordon, Ronald D (1985). “Empathy: the state of the art and science.” Paper presented at the International Conference of the World Communication Association, p. 16.

Harmer, Jeremy (2008). How to teach English. London: Longman.

Howatt, A. and J. Dakin. (1974). Language laboratory materials, ed. J. P. B. Allen, S. P. B. Allen, and S. P. Corder.

Kramsch, C. (2000). Language and Culture. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Krashen, S. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London: Longman.

Krashen, S. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. Harlow: Longman.

Larsen-Freeman, D. & Long, M. H. (2000). An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (1985). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. England: Oxford University Press.

Limbu, P. (2002). The Effects of Animated Times on the Development of Spoken Fluency in the Young Children. An Unpublished  M.Ed. Thesis, T.U.

Maley, A. (1997). Poetry and Song as Effective Language-learning Activities. In Wigla M. R. Interactive Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 93-109.

O’Malley & Chamot (1990). Listening: theory and practice in modern foreign language competence http://www.lang.ltsn.ac.uk/resources/ref6#ref6

Pandey K.P. (2007) A study on effectiveness of imitation drill in teaching pronunciation. An Unpublished Thesis of M.Ed., T.U., Kathmandu. Gardener, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books.

Richards, J.C. and Rodgres, T.S. (1995). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and Researching Listening. London, UK: Longman.

Satyal, J (2003). The Effectiveness of Visual Aids in Teaching English at Primary Level. An Unpublished  M.Ed. Thesis, T.U.

Thomlison, T. Dean (1984). “Relational listening: theoretical and practical considerations.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the 5th International Listening Association, p. 30 [ED 257 165]

Tomlinson, B. (1994). Pragmatic awareness activities. Language Awareness. 3/3: 119-129.

Appendix I

List of Songs to be Played

Love Song

  1. I’m Alive

Celine Dion


Mmmmm … mmmmm …

Mmmmmmmmmmmm

I get _______________ to fly

Oh, oh … Im alive …

Yeah

 

When you call on me

When I ______________ you

Breathe

I get wings to fly

I feel that Im _____________

 

When you look at me

I can ______________ the sky

I know that Im alive

Mmmmm ohhhhh ahhhhhhs

 

When you bless

The day

I just drift away

All my ______________ die

Im glad that im

Alive

 

Youve set my heart

On fire

Filled me with love

Made me a ___________ on

Clouds above

 

I couldnt get

Much _____________

My _______________ takes flight

Cause I am alive

Ohhhhh

 

When you call on me

When you call on me

When I hear you breathe

When I hear you breathe

I get wings to fly

(fly)

I feel that Im alive

(Im alive)

When you _____________

For me

Raising spirits high

God knows that

 

That Ill be the one

Standing by

 

Through good and

Through

Trying ________________

 

And its only begun

I cant wait for the

Rest of _________ __________

 

When you call on me

When you call on me

When you reach for me

When you reach for me

I get wings to fly

I feel that Im alive

Yeah

 

When you _________

________ __________

I just drift away

All my worries die

I know that Im alive

 

I get

Wings to fly

God knows that Im alive

 

 

Sentimental Song

  1. Against All Odds

-Phil Collins

How can I just let you walk away

Just let you leave without a ____________

When I stand here taking

Every _____________ with you oohhhh

You’re the only one

Who really knew me at all

 

How can you just _____________ away from me

When all I can do is watch you ____________

‘Cause we’ve shared the laughter and the pain

And even shared the _______________

You’re the only one

Who really knew me at all

 

So take a look at me now

‘Cause there’s just an __________ __________

There’s nothing left here to remind me

Just the memory of your face

So take a look at me now

‘Cause there’s just an empty space

And you coming back to me, is _____________ the odds

And that’s what I’ve got to faceeeee

 

I wish I could just make you turn around

Turn around and see me ______________

There’s so much I need to say to you

So many ________________ why

You’re the only one

Who really knew me at all

 

So take a look at me now

‘Cause there’s just an empty space

There’s nothing left here to remind me

Just the ____________ of your face

So Take a look at me now

Cause there’s just an empty space

But to wait for you is

All I can do

And that’s what I’ve got to _________.

Take a good look at me now

‘Cause l’ll still be standing (standing here)

And you coming back to me is against all odds

That’s the ________________ I’ve got to take

(chance I got to take, got to takeeee)

Yeahhhhh

Take A look at _________ _________

(Take

 

Rock Song

  1. It’s My Life

-Bon Jovi

This ain’t a song for the __________-hearted

No silent prayer for the ____________-departed

I ain’t gonna be just a face in the _____________

You’re gonna hear my voice

When I ____________ it out loud

 

[Chorus:]

It’s my life

It’s now or never

I ain’t gonna _______ ________

I just want to live while I’m alive

(It’s my life)

My heart is like an open ___________

Like Frankie said

I did it my way

I just wanna live while I’m alive

It’s my life

 

This is for the ones who stood their ___________

For _________ and Gina who never ____________down

Tomorrow’s getting harder make no mistake

Luck ain’t even lucky

Got to make your own breaks

 

[Chorus:]

It’s my life

And it’s now or never

I ain’t gonna live forever

I just want to live while I’m alive

(It’s my life)

My heart is like an open highway

Like _____________ said

I did it my way

I just want to live while I’m alive

__________it’s my life

 

Better stand tall when they’re calling you out

Don’t bend, don’t _________, baby, don’t back down

 

[Chorus:]

It’s my life

And it’s now or never

‘Cause I ain’t ____________ live forever

I just want to live while I’m alive

(It’s my life)

My ____________ is like an open highway

Like Frankie said

I did it my way

I just want to live while I’m alive

 

[Chorus:]

It’s my life

And it’s now or never

‘Cause I ain’t gonna live forever

I just want to live while I’m alive

(It’s my life)

My heart is like an open highway

Like Frankie said

I did it my way

I just want to live while I’m alive

‘Cause it’s my life!

 

Pop Song

4.                                                                                                                       O Carol

-Andrew Sixty

Oh! Carol, I am not a ____________,
________________  _______   __________ you
Tho’ you treat me _______________,
You _______________ me and you made me _____________
But if you ________________ me
I will surely die

Oh! Carol, I am not a fool,
Darling I love you tho’
You treat me cruel,
You heart me and you made me cry
But if you ______________ me I will ______________ die

Darling there will _______________ be another
Cause I love you so, don’t ever leave me,
Say you’ll never go
I will always want you for my ___________________
No _____________ what you do
Oh! Carol, I’m so in love with you

Darling there will never be ______________
Cause I love you so, don’t ever leave me,
say you’ll never go
I will always want you for my sweetheart
No ________________ what you do
Oh! Carol, I’m so in love with you


Thank You





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